- Planned change
programs intended to help people and organizations function more effectively.
- Applying behavioral science principles, methods, and theories to create and cope with
- OD creates fundamental change in the organization, as opposed to fixing a problem or
improving a procedure.
- OD programs
generally are facilitated by hired consultants.
- Deepen the sense
of organizational purpose.
- Strengthen interpersonal
- Encourage problem
solving rather than avoidance.
- Develop a satisfying
- Supplement formal
authority with knowledge and skill-based authority.
- Increase personal
responsibility for planning and implementing.
- Encourage willingness
Process (Kurt Lewin)
- Unfreezing, changing, and refreezing social systems
- Unfreezing: neutralizing resistance by preparing people for change.
- Changing: implementing the planned change
- Refreezing: systematically following a change program for lasting results.